Our experience on earth makes us think that the tides are causing by water following the moon and sun. It turns out the water isn’t chasing the moon and sun. The water stays in the same place as the earth rotates inside the two bulges of water. More on this in the video and on wiki.
We’re fortunate to live in a time when we have two new launch rockets intended to enable crewed launches to Mars.
The two rockets on the left have flown already. The Falcon Heavy flew in 2018 and is currently 32M miles from home traveling at 58K mph. The Saturn V launched the Apollo Missions between 1967-1973.
The two rockets on the right haven’t flown yet. Boeing’s Space Launch System is more expensive and also is not reusable, so it has larger expected price (green bar graph) and $ per kilogram (blue bar graph) characteristics.
We’re a decade from self-driving cars. When I write self-driving I mean a car that drives you around while you sleep, which is level-4 and level-5. Since I think we have 10 years until that, in the meantime let’s talk about level 1, 2 and 3 in a granular way.
In 2021 pieces of Mars will land safely on earth as part of Mars 2020. The Mars 2020 rover collects samples and leaves them in canisters on the surface. The lander deploys a fetch rover to collect the samples and deposit them in an ascent vehicle, which blasts into Mars orbit. There, a return orbiter collects the samples for transport back to Earth.
The BepiColombo mission launched in October 2018 will enter orbit around Mercury on December 5, 2025. Here’s an incredible animation of its 9 gravity assists past Earth (once), Venus (twice) and Mercury (six times).